navagraha kRtis of muttusvAmI dIkSitar

Dikshitar's Navagraha (Nine Planets) kritis are among his most famous sets. They contain a good deal of Vedic astrology, as well as fine music. There is one kriti for each of the classical nine planets.

The following lyrics and translations are taken from the LP recording of Prof. S. Ramanathan. I have tried to correct some typographical errors from that source (which is also very hard to read), and hope I have not introduced too many of my own. Please let me know of any errors.

The transliteration scheme is that used in the notes to that recording, written by Robert Gottlieb. It is a truncated version of that which I have used on the list of compositions.

The Nine Planets

Note that the final two kritis (on the inauspicious "planets" Rahu and Ketu) are now considered to be later compositions by Dikshitar's followers, added to round out the traditional nine.

To caturdasha rAgamAlikA

To Carnatic page

Todd M. McComb


rAga: saurASTram / tAla: caturashra dhruva

sUryamUrte namOstu te sundaracchAyAdhipate

kAryakAraNAtmakajagatprAkasha simhArAshyadhipate AryavinutatejassphUrte ArogyAdiphaladakIrte

sArasamitra mitra bhAno sahasrakiraNa karNasUno krUrapApaharakRshAno guruguhamoditasvabhAno sUrijaneDita sudinamaNe somAdigrahashikhAmaNe dhIrAcita karmasAkSiNe divyatarasaptAshvarathine saurAStArNamantrAtmane sauvarNasvarUpAtmane bhAratIshahariharAtmane bhuktimuktivitaraNAtmane


Salutations Oh Lord in the form of Surya, the Lord of the beautiful Chaya[1].

Oh illuminator of all infinite causes and effects in the world, the Lord of Simha rasi[2]. One whose effulgent lustre has been praised by those of highest esteem, the bestower of benefits such as good health.

Friend to the day-lotus, a friend to all, the most resplendent one, the thousand-rayed, the father of Karna[3], the fire swallowing dreadful sins[4], whose brilliance has delighted Guruguha[5], one who is praised by the learned, the auspicious day-jewel, crest-jewel to Chandra and other planets, worshipped by the energetic, the witness to all actions, one who has the chariot drawn by the seven divine horses[6]. One whose principle nature is embedded in the eight-syllabled hymn of praise[7], who is of golden hue, of the nature of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva[8], and who confers material benefits and spiritual emancipation.


  1. (lit. 'shadow'), a substitute form of Samjna, wife of Surya, who assumed this disguise to escape the heat of her husband
  2. Constellation Leo
  3. Hero of the Mahabharata who having sided with the Kauravas against the Pandavas was killed by Arjuna at the battle of Kuruksetra
  4. The power of the Vedas radiates forth in the form of Surya, this power illuminates all darkness and destroys the sins of the worlds.
  5. A name for Subramanya (Skanda), son of Shiva who became the teacher of the Gods [also Dikshitar's "pen name"]
  6. This theme appears in numerous passages of the Vedas. The Sun-temples of India are constructed along this theme, the most famous being the Konarak temple in Orissa. The symbolism of the seven horses has been explained in different ways; relating to the seven days of the week, to the seven sacred metres of verse [See RV X130.4-5], and to the seven colors of the solar spectrum. The seven horses at Konarak are named after these colors: Rakta (red), Rocika (orange), Pita (yellow), Nila (blue), Indra-nila (deep blue), Mocika (violet) and Shukla (white).
  7. ref. to the 'gayatri' hymn addressed to the Vedic solar god Savitr: "May we attain that excellent glory of Savitr the god, so we may stimulate our prayers." [RV III.62.10] This is the most sacred of Hindu hymns and is recited daily by all Brahmins.
  8. Surya is considered to be a manifestation of Vishnu, from whom all Gods were created. On rising he appears in the form of Brahma (creator), at mid-day as Vishnu (preserver) and on setting as Rudra (dissolution). This theme has its roots in the Vedic myth of Vishnu taking three steps over the universe: "I will declare the mighty deeds of Vishnu, of him who measured out the earthly regions. Who propped the highest place of congregation, thrice setting down his footstep, widely striding." [RV I.154.1, also VII.99]


rAga: asaverI / tAla: caturashra maThya

candraM bhaja mAnasa sAdhuhRdayasadRsham

indrAdilokapAleDitataresham induM SoDashakalAdharam NishAkaram indirAsahodaraM sudhAkaramanisham

shaNkaramaulivibhUSaNaM shIakiraNaM caturbhujaM madanacchatraM kSapAkaraM venkaTesanayanaM virANmanojananaM vidhum kumudamitraM vidhiguruguhavaktraM shashaHNkaM gISpatishApAnugrahapAtraM sharaccandrikAdhavaLaprakAshagAtraM kaHNkaNakeyUrahAramukuTadhidharaM paHNkajaripuM rohiNIpriyakaracaturam


Mind, worship Chandra (pure and pleasing) who is like the hearts of all good men.

(Worship Him) Always, the Lord of the stars[1] praised by the guardian deities of Indra[2] and others, who moistens the Earth, the one with sixteen digits[3], and rich in nectar[4].

(Worship Him) The ornament on Lord Shiva's crest, the cool-rayed, the four-armed, the parasol of Madana[5], the night-maker, the eye of Lord Venkatesa[6], mentally created by Virat[7], the inflictor of suffering[8], the friend of the night-lotus, and the face of Lord Subramanya who became the teacher of the creator. (Worship Him) Who bears the mark of the hare[9], who was first cursed and later favored by Brhaspati, with his white body shining bright in autumn, the wearer of armlets, bracelets, necklace and crown, enemy of the day-lotus and a courteous lover of Rohini[10].


  1. Lord of the 27 naksatras, the stars which oversee the 27 lunar mansions of the zodiac. These are considered to be the wives of Chandra.
  2. The Vedic God of thunderbolt and battle, the King of the Gods who vanquishes demons of drought and darkness
  3. The 16 lunar phases (kala)
  4. The Vedic God Soma, the Moon, is the repository of the rich soma nectar which is the ambrosial drink of the Gods. As this nectar is derived from the Moon it moistens the Earth. The process of producing soma is closely identified with the Moon. "As the Moon-God pours down his ambrosial rain through the sieve of heaven he is addressed and worshipped as pavamana (self-purifying), represented by the soma juice as it undergoes purification by flowing through the wool which is used as a filter or strainer." [RV IX.1] Most of the hymns of this Book are addressed to soma the nectar, or Soma, or Indu the Moon.
  5. The parasol symbolizes Chandra's role as a follower and attendant to Madana ('infatuator'), the God of Love, also called Manmatha ('churner of the mind'), Kama ('desire') or Smara ('love').
  6. The form of Shiva having three eyes, the Sun, Moon and Fire, the three sources of light which illuminate the worlds. The eye of Fire is the strongest. This looks inward on the forehead but when directed outwards it can destroy all that appears before it.
  7. The secondary creator virat-purusa, created by Brahman as primeval man. "The Moon was engendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth, Indra and Agni from his mouth were born, and Vayu (air) from his breath. Forth from his navel came mid-air; the sky was fashioned from his head; from Earth his feet and from his ear the regions. Thus they formed the worlds." [RV X.90.13-14]
  8. Chandra fell in love with Tara, the beautiful wife of Brhaspati, and abducted her. There was a prolonged war between Chandra and Brhaspati in which the Gods became involved. This ultimately resulted in the defeat of Chandra and his separation from Tara. Thus Chandra has come to be identified with the despair and suffering of separated lovers.
  9. The surface markings on the Moon reveal in outline form the figure of a hare. For this reason Chandra is sometimes referred to as Shasha (hare).
  10. The star Aldebaran, constellation Taurus; of the 27 naksatras Rohini is the favorite of Chandra


rAga: suraTi / tAla: rUpaka

aHNgArakam AshrayAmy ahaM (shrI) vinatAsritajanamandAraM maHNgalavAram bhUmikumAraM vAraM vAraM

shRHNgArakameSavRshcikarAshyadhipatiM raktAngaM raktAmbarAdidhraM shaktisUladharaM maHNgalaM kambugalaM maHnjulatarapadayugalaM maHNgaladAyakaMeSaturaHNgaM makarottuHNgam

dAnavasurasevitamandasmitavilasitavaktraM dharaNIpradaM bhrAtRkArakaM raktanetraM dInarakSakaM pUjitavaidyanAthakSetraM divyaughAdiguruguhakaTAkSAnugrahapAtram bhAnucandragurumitraM bhAsamAnasasukalatraM jAnusthahastacitraM caturbhujamativicitram


I take refuge again in Angaraka[1], the divine Mandara tree[2] to the humble dependent devotees, the presiding deity of Tuesday, and the son of Earth.

Who is the Lord of the cherished houses of Mesa and Vrischika[3], with red limbs, who wears the red dress and is the bearer of the sword and trident. The auspicious one, with beautiful neck, with lovely feet, bestower of auspiciousness, riding on the Goat, and whose higher aspis[4] is in Makara rasi[5].

Who is worshipped by Gods and demons, one with the face beaming and smiling, bestower of landed wealth and brotherhood, with red eyes, protector of the afflicted, worshipped in the holy Vaidisvaran temple[6], and favored by the hosts of the Gods and Guruguha. Who is the friend of Surya, Chandra and Brhaspati, shining with his good wife, and his hands on his knees, having four arms, and who is quite extraordinary.


  1. (lit. 'glowing charcoal'), also referred to as Mangala ('happiness', 'felicity')
  2. A form of coral tree, one of the 'five divine trees' (devataru) of the heaven of the gods: mandara, parijataka, santana, kalpavriksa and haricandana
  3. Constellations Aries and Scorpio
  4. Aphelion
  5. Constellation Capricorn
  6. This shrine is located in the Tanjore area. It is used for seeking good health and cure from diseases.


rAga: nATakuraHnji / tAla: mishra jhampa

budham AshrayAmi satataM suravinutaM candratArAsutam

budhajanaiveditaM bhUsurair moditam madhurakavitApradaM mahanIyasampadam

kuHNkumasamadyutiM guruguhamudAkRtiM kujavairiNaM maNimukuTahArakeyUrakaHNkaNAdidhraNaM kamanIyataramithunakanyAdhipaM pustakakaraM napuMsakam kiHNkara janamahitaM kilbiSAdirahitaM shaHNkarabhaktahitaM sadAnandasahitam


I always seek shelter in Budha who is worhipped by the Gods, who is the son of Chandra and Tara[1].

Who is revered by the learned, and who brings joy to Brahmins. Who is the bestower of the sweet art of poetry, the one of splendorous wealth.

Who is brightly colored like saffron, whose form gives delight to Guruguha, who is the enemy of Kuja[2], the wearer of gem-studded crown, necklace, armlets and bracelets, Lord of the houses of Mithuna and Kanya[3], with book in hand[4] and who is neuter[5]. Who is honored by his attendants, is devoid of all evil, benefits the devotees of Shiva, and is always joyous.


  1. The illegitimate son of Chandra and Tara
  2. ref. to Angaraka, the son of Shiva and Earth, as 'born of Earth'
  3. Constellations Gemini and Virgo
  4. Symbolic of the intelligence and wisdom of Budha
  5. Having been born of an illicit love affair Budha was cursed by Brhaspati and became neuter


rAga: aThAna / tAla: tishra tripuTa

bRhaspate tArApate brahmajAte namOstu te

mahAbala vibho gISpate maHnjudhanurmInAdhipate mahendrAdyupAsitakRte mAdhavAdivinutadhImate

shurAcAryavarya vajradhara shubhalakSaNa jagattrayaguro jarAdivarjitAkrodha kacajanakashritajanakalpataro purAriguruguhasammodita putrakAraka dInabandho parAdicatvArivAksvarUpaprakAshaka dayAsindho nirAmayAya nItikartre niraHNkushAya vishvabhartre niraHNjanAya bhuvanabhoktre niraHNshAya makhapradAtre


Salutations Brhaspati! Lord of Tara, one who is born of Brahma[1].

Oh omnipresent one, Oh Lord of great strength, Lord of speech[2], Lord of lovely Dhanus and Mina[3], whose form is adored by Indra and the other Gods, and who is the great intellectual honored by divinities like Madhava[4].

Oh most esteemed teacher of the Gods, wielder of the thunderbolt[5], of auspicious markings, teacher of the three worlds[6], one who is not affected by old age and the like, unexcitable, father of Kaca[7], the divine Kalpataru[8] for those who take refuge in Him, who is a delight to Shiva and Guruguha, and the bestower of offspring, kin to the distressed, the manifester of the four phases of speech[9], an ocean of compassion. Who is devoid of all illness, the author of smrti[10], uncontrolled, the Lord of the Universe, the untarnished one, who delights in the worlds and is the bestower of vigor.


  1. Also descended from the mind of virat-purusa (see Chandra[7])
  2. An epithet for the Vedic god Indra, Brhaspati or Brahamanaspati is the 'Lord of Prayer'
  3. Constellations Sagittarius and Pisces
  4. Name for Vishnu in his incarnation as Krishna
  5. In the Vedas Brhaspati is associated with the god Indra.
  6. ref. to tripura, the three cities of the gods: "here (Earth), heaven above Earth, and the spacious firmament" [RV I.6.10]
  7. The son of Brhaspati who has sent to Shukra, leader of the demons (asuras), to learn the secret for reviving the dead (see Shukra[1])
  8. The wish-yielding tree of Indra's paradise, the kalpavriksa (see Angaraka[2]); as a generous god Brhaspati is compared to the kalpavriksa
  9. "The place where the idea originates... the first impulse... is the 'voice beyond' (para-vac). The first mental impulse, like the shoot springing from an invisible seed is the 'voice that sees' (pashyanti). The potential sound, which is the vehicle of thought, is the 'intermediary voice' (madhyama). The exteriorized sound in the form of articulate syllables is the 'voice manifest' (vaikhari)." [Karapatri "Sri Bhagavati tattva"]
  10. ref. to Brhaspatismrti, an important early text on legal etiquette


rAga: pharaj / tAla: khaNDa aTa

shrIshukrabhagavantaM cintayAmi santataM sakalatattvajHnam

he shukrabhagavan mAm Ashu pAlaya vRSatulAdhIsha daityahitopadesham keshavakaTAkSaikanetraM kirITadharaM dhavalagAtram

viMshativatSaroDudashavibhAgam aSTavargaM kaviM kalatrakArakaM ravinirjaraguruvairiNaM navAMshahorAdrekkANAdivargottamavasarasamaye vakroccanIcasvakSetravarakendramUlatrikoNe trimshAMshasaSTyAMshairavatAMshaparijAtAMshagopurAMsharAjayogakArakaM rAjuapradaM guruguhamudam


I always meditate upon the God Shukra, the knower of all truths[1].

Rescue me quickly Oh Shukra, Lord of the houses of Tula and Vrisa[2], and sound counsellor to all demons. Whose one eye was safeguarded by the grace of Kesava[3], who is the wearer of the crown and of white substance.

Whose beneficial influence on the various constellations is for the duration of twenty years[4], one having eight vargas[5], the poet, beneficent planet for marital bliss[6], inimical to Surya and Brhaspati, who while in navamsha, hora, drekana[7], vakra[8], nicaj[9], ucca[10], svaksetra[11], varakendra[12], and in the mulatrikone[13] ... and while in the different amshas, trimsamsha[14], sastyamsha[15], airavatamsha, pariyatamsha, gopuramsha[16], bestows royalty and kingdoms and delights Guruguha.


  1. Although the preceptor of the demons, Shukra was a Brahmin and as such a repository of the knowledge of the Vedas. When Kaca broke out from Shukra's stomach after having been burnt and pulverized by the demons and consumed with wine which was drunk by Shukra, Kaca saw the pile of Vedic knowledge which was the fallen dead man. With the secret formula for reviving the dead he caused him to come to life again. Kaca then bowed to his Guru and said, "The Guru is the giver of unsurpassed truth, the treasury of the four-fold riches of knowledge, worthy of respect. Those who do not respect him go to the bottomless evil worlds." [Mahabharata I.71]
  2. Constellations Libra and Taurus
  3. A name for Vishnu; Shukra lost one of his eyes when Vishnu appearing as Vamana, his fifth incarnation, thrust Mahabali a demon down to the netherworld and Shukra tried to obstruct it.
  4. ref. to ududasha system in which each planet presides over a particular period (dasha) of time. According to Mantreshvara these are: Surya 6 years, Chandra 10, Mangala 7, Rahu 18, Brhaspati 16, Shani 19, Budha 17, Ketu 7 and Shukra 20. Each of these main periods is divided into smaller sub-periods (bhuktis) and each sub-period is divided into smaller periods (antara). The antara are again subdivided into antarantaras, and so on until the swara or the period necessary for the inhaling and exhaling of breath is reached. Thus the planets individually and collectively exercise controls over all time-spans of existence.
  5. ref. to astavarga, a system of ongoing horoscopy; pertaining to this system Pingree gives the following account: "As described in the Yavanajataka this system is identical with the Western theory of the revolution of the years of the nativity in which one uses the transits of the planets through the places they occupied at the original of the birth-horoscope.... The basic idea is to cast a new horoscope at the end of each year, month, day or other appropriate time-interval of the native's life and to compare it with the horoscope at his birth.... Transit is the entry of a planet into a sign occupied by a particular planet in the birth-horoscope."
  6. Love, one of the principles of existence (sattvani), is assigned to Shukra. ", love, knowledge, speech, truthfullness, ignorance and mind; they pervade respectively the Sun, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn and the Moon." [Yavanajataka I-112]
  7. These terms refer to measurements of arc as determined from the first point of Aries, the 'vernal equinox'. This is the point at which the path of the Sun crosses from the South to the North of the celestial equator. All measurements are made on the ecliptic. Navamsha is 1/9th of 30 degrees = 3 degrees 20 mintues; hora is 1/2 of 30 degrees = 15 degrees; drekana is 1/3 of 30 degrees = 10 degrees.
  8. Retrograde motion of planet
  9. (lit. 'in a low position') dejection
  10. (lit. 'high' or 'elevated') position of exaltation; this is located 180 degrees opposite from the position of dejection
  11. The ruling houses of Shukra, Libra and Taurus
  12. The best cardines; of the 12 places on the Zodiac, cardines 1, 4, 7 and 10
  13. Base-triplicity; "the mulatrikonas of Mars, the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn are, in order, Aries, Taurus, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Saggitarius and Aquarius." [Yavanajataka I-62]
  14. one degree
  15. one half degree
  16. These terms refer to particular combinations of the vargas for the planets. According to the 10 varga (dashavarga) system, Mantreshvara says "whether a planet is in its friendly house, its own house, or in its exaltation house, a combination of 2 vargas is called pariyatamsha, that of 4 is called gopuramsha, that of 6 airavatamsha."


rAga: yadukulakAmbhoji / tAla: caturashra Eka

divAkaratanujaM shanaishcaraM dhIrataraM santataM cintayEham

bhavAmbunidhau niMagnajanAnAM bhayaHNkaram atikrUraphaladam bhavAnIshakaTAkSapAtrabhUtabhaktimatAmatishayashubhaphaladam

kAlAHnjanakAntiyuktadehaM kAlasahodaraM kAkavAhaM nIlAMshukapuSpamAlavRtaM nIlaratnabhUSaNAlaNkRtaM mAlinIvinutaguruguhamuditaM makarabumbharAshinAthaM tilatailamishritAnnadIpapriyam dayAsudhAsAgaraM nirbhayam kAladaNDaparipIditajAnuM kAmitArthaphaladakAmaDhenuM kAlacakrabhedacitrabhAnuM kalpitaccAyAdevisUnum


I always meditate upon the slow-moving[1] Shani, the son of Surya and the courageous one.

Who causes fear in people plunged in the ocean of worldly existence, and is the harbinger of calamitous events[2]. Who grants uniquely auspicious rewards for devotees favored by Shiva's benign glances.

Who with a body of dark lustre like collyrium[3], brother of Yama, riding on his vehicle the Crow, decorated with blue dress and a blue flower wreath, with ornaments embedded with blue stones, who is worshipped by Malini[4] and delights Guruguha. Lord of the two houses of Makara and Kumbha[5], with special liking for the lamp lit with sesame oil and for rice with sesame seeds[6], an ocean of nectar of compassion and fearless. Whose knee was disfigured by the staff of the Lord of Death, like Kamadhenu[7] yielding all desires, the fire capable of splitting the time-wheel[8], and one conceived of as the son of the Goddess Chaya.


  1. Shani's knee was disfigured as a result of a fight with his brother Yama, God of the dead. Hence Shani is called 'Shanaiscara' (lit. 'slow-moving')
  2. Shani is the planet influencing suicide.
  3. A black sandal-paste mixture
  4. According to Parthasarathy, this name was assumed by Draupadi heroine of the Mahabharata and wife of the five Pandava brothers. While in exile with her husbands she suffered untold privations and indignities while living at the palace of King Virata. Under her assumed name Malini she worshipped Shani to alleviate her from her sufferings.
  5. Constellations Capricorn and Aquarius
  6. Foods for offering oblations to Shani
  7. The sacred wish-granting cow, bestower of all wishes and desires
  8. A figure of speech symbolizing Shani's power to interrupt or delay the progress of time; this power prevents a normal progress towards death, such as caused by calamitous events or suicide


(* Prof. Ramanathan argues convincingly that this kriti is not original, but was rather composed and added by one of Dikshitar's followers. *)

rAga: rAmapriyA (ramAmanohari) / tAla: rUpaka

smarAmy aham sadA rAhuM sUryacandravIkSyaM vikRtadeham

surAsuraM rogaharaM sarpAdibhItiharaM shurpAsanasukhakaraM shUlAyaudhadharakaraM

karAlavadanaM kaThinaM kayAnArNakaruNArdrApaHNgaM caturbhujaM khaDgakheTAdidharaNan carmAdinIlavastraM gomedakAbharaNaM shanisukramitraguruguhasaMtoSakaraNaM


I am constantly reminded of Rahu who seizes Surya and Chandra[1], and is deformed[2].

Who is both God and demon[3], who removes all ills, and dispels danger from poisonous creatures like serpents. Who does good to those who worship him seated in his grain-sieve[4] and bears the spear.

Who with a dreadful face, harsh, directing his compassionate side-glance when worshipped with the Kayana mantra[5], with four hands and carrying the sword and shield. Who is attired in blue cloth and dress made of leather, who wears ornaments made of Gomedaka gems[6], the friendly planet of Shani and Shukra, and who delights Guruguha.


  1. The planets Rahu and Ketu are the ascending and descending nodes, the points where the path of the Moon crosses the ecliptic and as a result causes eclipses. These demons are regarded as constantly chasing Surya and Chandra, to seize them, and when they catch up swallow them.
  2. Rahu and Ketu are the upper and lower parts of the body of a demon dragon which was cut into two by Vishnu. Rahu is therefore called 'dragon's head' and Ketu 'dragon's tail'. The following episode from the Mahabharata describes this event. "As the Gods were drinking the ambrosia which they so desired, a demon named Rahu took the form of a god and began to drink, but when the ambrosia reached his throat, the Moon and the Sun reported it, for they wished to help the gods, and the lord Vishnu took his discus and cut off the well-adorned head of that demon who was drinking the ambrosia he had obtained by force. The great head of the demon, which was like the peak of a mountain, fell to earth. The severed head rose up to the sky, roaring terribly, but the headless torso of the demon fell and split open the surface of the earth, causing a tremor throughout the earth with its mountains forests and islands. Since then there has been a deadly enmity between the head of Rahu and the Moon and Sun, and the immortal head swallows them up even today." [Mahabharata I.15-17]
  3. A god for having drunk ambrosia (amritam) and a demon by birth
  4. A grain sifter having a wooden frame of the shape shown in the line-configuration for Rahu
  5. ref. to mantra text for Rahu
  6. A gemstone of the mineral 'hessonite', one of the lime-aluminum varieties of garnet; colors honey, brownish, cinnamon; found mostly in Ceylon


(* Prof. Ramanathan argues convincingly that this kriti is not original, but was rather composed and added by one of Dikshitar's followers. *)

rAga: shanmukhapriyA (cAmaram) / tAla: rUpaka

mahAsuraM ketum ahaM bhajAmi chAyagrahavaram

mahAvicitramakuTadharaM maHNgalavastrAdidharam narapIThasthitaM sukhaM navagrahayutasakhaM

ketuMkRNvanmantrinaM krodhanidhijaiminaM kulutthAdibhakSaNaM koNadhvajapatAkinam guruguhacAmarabharaNaM guNadoSacidAbharaNaM grahaNAdikAryakAraNaM grahApasavyasaHncAriNam


I worship Ketu, the great demon who is foremost of the shadow planets[1].

Who wears a peculiar crown and auspicious dress. Who is happy in his part human-like body and is friendly in the group of nine planets.

Who is adored by the Ketum-krinvan mantra[2], who is exceedingly wrathful, a descendent of Jaimini[3], who savours his grain[4], and has his flag with the cut-out triangle. Who bears the fan of Guruguha[5], whose distinction lies in his discernment of good and bad, who causes eclipses and moves in a counterclockwise direction.


  1. The planets causing eclipses
  2. ref. to mantra text for Ketu
  3. Disciple of Vyasa, compiler of the Vedas; the significance of this relationship however remains unclear
  4. A coarse horse-grain (kuluttha) used for offering oblations to Ketu
  5. The fan is a symbol for imparting pleasure, as this brings relief from the heat. Ketu as the holder of the fan gives pleasure to Guruguha.

Typed 8/29/95 by
Todd M. McComb