Early Music Recording Lists

Renaissance Sacred Polyphony

This list is centered on the heart of the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style of the later 15th century. This is one of the most significant strands of Western musical development, and the list will attempt to survey the three generations from Dufay to Ockeghem to Josquin fairly well, with some later additions from the traditions branching off from this core.

This genre is especially interesting to me, as it is the most elaborate contrapuntal music ever written in the mainstream. My interest stops largely with the stylistic generation of Gombert, with some outlying examples in a handful of styles which do add something specific to the polyphonic idiom forged in the late 15th century. I will generally eschew music which is not contrapuntally based in the strict sense. The recordings listed may not be composed entirely of sacred music, but will be primarily devoted to it.

Recordings will be listed roughly chronologically. I should note specifically here that, in many cases, the number of stars does not adequately relate my own relative enthusiasm for repertory vs. performance. Where a large discrepancy exists between the two, the comments available by following the link on the rating itself should help clarify. Putting together a really compelling recording of this very fine and complicated music continues to be a challenge. Once more musicians grow up hearing this music, the challenge will lessen.

This list is one I would be happy to make much longer. There is a wealth of very fine music from around the year 1500, and it is - for me - the height of Western music. Unfortunately, it has taken quite some time, and the efforts of multiple generations of interpreters, to begin to have really outstanding recordings of this music. Even as it is, many here could be improved by a more up-to-date production. Hopefully this situation will continue to be remedied over time, as more groups learn the intricacies of this music. Many of the questions of note & rhythm have only been answered in recent years, and so interpretations are taking on a more finished quality.


Dufay

Dufay has benefited tremendously from many fine recordings. His major works have been blessed with more and better performances than any other composer of this stylistic era. A new generation of interpreters continues to improve on the older work, moving his discography into another state of flux. The present list size would seem to give a good overview of Dufay's Mass cycles.

Dufay & the Court of Savoy (**)
The Binchois Consort - Andrew Kirkman
Hyperion 67715
Dufay: Missa "Puisque je vis" / Motets (*)
Binchois Consort - Andrew Kirkman
Hyperion 67368
Dufay: Missa Ecce ancilla Domini (***)
Ensemble Gilles Binchois - Dominique Vellard
Virgin Veritas 45050
Dufay: Missa Ave Regina cælorum (*)
Ensemble Cantus Figuratus / Schola Cantorum Basiliensis - Dominique Vellard
Stil 0710 SAN 85

Mid-Fifteenth Century

After a long wait, we are finally seeing more first-rate performances of this music. It is very welcome to me, as in many ways this is one of the most stimulating times in Western music, the era from which Dufay & Ockeghem emerged. The techniques are less uniform than they are in the next generation, and so present many unexplored avenues. Only a few years ago, none of the listed recordings existed.

The Spirits of England and France - IV & V (**)
Missa Caput / Missa Veterem hominem
Gothic Voices - Christopher Page
IV: Hyperion 66857
V: Hyperion 66919
Northerne Wynde (*)
Music of Walter Frye
Ferrara Ensemble - Crawford Young
Marc Aurel Edition 20018
Regis: Opera omnia (***)
The Clerks - Edward Wickham
Musique en Wallonie 0848/9 (2 CDs)
Faugues 2: Paradise regained (**)
Missa "L'homme armé" / Missa "Vinus vina vinum"
The Sound and the Fury
ORF 3115 (2 CDs)
Caron: Masses & Chansons (****)
The Sound and the Fury
Fra Bernardo 120 730 2 [CDx3]
Busnois: Missa "O crux lignum" / Motets / Chansons (**)
Orlando Consort
Harmonia Mundi USA 907333
Busnois: L'homme armé (***)
Cantica Symphonia - Giuseppe Maletto
Glossa 31906
Tinctoris: Missa L'homme armé / Missa Sine nomine (*)
The Clerks' Group - Edward Wickham
Cyprès "Musique en Wallonie" 3608

Ockeghem

Here I will add the personal note that it was Ockeghem's music more than any other which sold me on this genre some years ago. His ability to compose free counterpoint which is melodically compelling in each line is virtually unparalleled, and a constant inspiration. Ockeghem's discography seems almost to be in two parts below, with a flurry of recordings around the 500th anniversary of his death, a long gap, and now new efforts appearing.

Ockeghem: Requiem (*)
Ensemble Organum - Marcel Pérès
Harmonia Mundi 901441
Ockeghem: The two three-voice masses (*)
Missa Sine nomine / Missa Quinti toni
Schola Discantus - Kevin Moll
Lyrichord 8010
Ockeghem: Missa De plus en plus / Missa Fors seulement (**)
Schola Discantus - Kevin Moll
Lyrichord 8029
Ockeghem: Missa Au travail suis / Missa Sine Nomine a5 (*)
The Clerks' Group - Edward Wickham
AS&V Gaudeamus 215
Johannes Ockeghem 2 (****)
Paradise Regained
The Sound and the Fury
ORF "Alte Musik" 3130
Ockeghem: Missæ Cuiusvis toni & Prolationum (****)
The Sound and the Fury
Fra Bernardo 130 220 2

The Golden Age

Moving to the post-Ockeghem generation and the years around the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Franco-Flemish style becomes the central musical idiom of Europe, and a tradition with enough weight to sustain a wealth of viewpoints & innovations. For the most part, I will conclude this list with examples from this generation, that of Josquin and his direct contemporaries. This is one of the most appealing times for Western music, but also a time during which style was in a state of flux, and so I have been relatively selective regarding which composers to emphasize. This general section of the listing disappeared in recent years, as more dedicated programs have appeared in the following sections, and now it is revived with Agricola alone. Perhaps Agricola should be given a separate section, but the current paragraph still serves as a useful introduction.

Agricola: Missa Malheur me bat / Missa In minen sin (****)
Ars Nova Secunda Chorus - János Bali
Hungaroton 32011
Agricola: Missa Le serviteur / Missa Je ne demande (***)
A:N:S Chorus - János Bali
Hungaroton 32267

Obrecht

Obrecht is the first composer of the Josquin generation who is of high individual interest to me. Obrecht is especially skilled at creating large-scale architectural forms and keeping them animated with energetic counterpoint. Not so many years ago, Obrecht possessed not a single dedicated recording on CD. Today, first with the Hungaroton series, there is a very good overview of his style available, making this portion of the list very satisfying.

Obrecht: Missa Maria zart (*)
Tallis Scholars - Peter Phillips
Gimell 032
Obrecht: Sacred Music (*)
Missa O lumen ecclesiæ / Missa Malheur me bat
Ars Nova Secunda Chorus - János Bali
Hungaroton 31772
Obrecht: Missa Si dedero / Missa Pfauenschwanz (***)
Ars Nova Secunda Chorus - János Bali
Hungaroton 31946
Obrecht: Missa Fors seulement / Missa De tous biens playne / Missa Cela sans plus (*)
A:N:S Chorus - János Bali
Hungaroton 32319
Obrecht 1 (**)
The Sound and the Fury
ORF 3048
Plorer, Gemir, Crier... (**)
Hommage à La "Voix d'Or" de Ockeghem
Diabolus in Musica - Antoine Guerber
Aeon 1226

Josquin

Josquin wrote some fine music, but I cannot say that he is one of my personal favorite composers. While I admire elements of his style, I emphatically disagree with any suggestion that his music is better than that of all other composers of his generation. This listing is very much in a state of transition at the moment. Josquin's most important works are generally found only on performances that seem somewhat dated & unfocused when compared to some of the better interpretations on the list, which might include lesser material. However, this is starting to change with the last few releases below. Recent recorded emphasis on the mass cycles over the motets is also becoming an issue here, as Josquin's motets are some of his best music.

Josquin: Music for Ercole I d'Este (**)
De Labyrintho - Walter Testolin
Stradivarius "Dulcimer" 33674
Josquin: Musica Symbolica (*)
De Labyrintho - Walter Testolin
Stradivarius "Dulcimer" 33722
Josquin: Missa Sine nomine / Missa Ad fugam (***)
The Tallis Scholars - Peter Phillips
Gimell 039
Josquin: Missa Malheur me bat / Missa Fortuna desperata (*)
The Tallis Scholars - Peter Phillips
Gimell 042
Josquin: Messes de l'Homme armé (*)
Métamorphoses - Maurice Bourbon
Calliope 9441
Josquin: Missa Pange Lingua (*)
Kammerchor Josquin des Préz - Ludwig Böhme
Carus 83.345
Josquin: Missa De beata virgine / Missa Ave maris stella (**)
The Tallis Scholars - Peter Phillips
Gimell 044

La Rue

La Rue is another composer of the generation of Josquin who appeals to me strongly. His style does not make overwhelming use of any particular technical element, continuing the ideas of Ockeghem et al. in an original way. La Rue consequently marks something of an end to the more abstract Franco-Flemish style. His recorded discography is somewhat sketchy to date, finally receiving a landmark interpretation in 2010. Perhaps this event will begin to transform his discography, and certainly has already made ripples on this list. Some highly appealing material can also be found in the other renditions below, from a variety of interpreters.

La Rue: Missa de Feria / Missa Sancta Dei Genitrix (**)
Gothic Voices - Christopher Page
Hyperion 67010
La Rue: Mass of the Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin / Easter Mass (*)
Ars Antiqua de Paris - Michel Sanvoisin
Naxos 8.554656
La Rue: Missa de Sancta Cruce / Quadris: Lamentations (**)
Clerks' Group - Edward Wickham
AS&V "Gaudeamus" 307
La Rue: Incessament (*)
Amarcord
Raum Klang "Edition Apollon" 10105
La Rue: Missa Ave Maria / Vespers (**)
Capilla Flamenca - Dirk Snellings
Musique en Wallonie 0633
La Rue: Paradise regained (****)
Missa "Ave sanctissima Maria" / Missa "O salutaris Hostia"
The Sound and the Fury
ORF 3094
Extreme Singing (*)
La Rue Requiem and other Low Masterpieces of the Renaissance
Vox Early Music Ensemble - Christopher Wolverton
Ancient Voice Records 002

Beyond...

Gombert is perhaps the most innovative composer in the generation succeeding Josquin. After him, Renaissance polyphony went more toward simplification in that never-ending cycle, and so my interest wanes. I would like to add more material from the Gombert generation (such as Clemens), but quality programs combined with quality interpretations have been slow to appear. Le Jeune is a later composer who managed to be innovative in a unique way.

Paradise Regained - Gombert 1 (**)
The sound and the fury - Thomas E. Bauer
ORF 463
Paradise Regained - Gombert 2 (*)
The sound and the fury
ORF 3006
Le Jeune: Missa Ad Placitum / Magnificat (*)
Ensemble Clément Janequin - Dominique Visse
Harmonia Mundi 901607

If a recording in this genre is not listed here, either I haven't been able to obtain a copy (perhaps out of print), I don't know about it at all, I felt that it is substantially duplicated by a recording I like better, or I didn't care for it enough to give it one star. Of course this is attentuated for recordings in the final section, as there my criteria for repertory become even more idiosyncractic. However, in the earlier sections I definitely try to be familiar with everything that is recorded. Please feel free to inquire.

One thing that should probably be said here is that I am frequently hyper-critical concerning performances of my favorite pieces. In my more lucid moments, I sometimes think that I merely believe the pieces to be better than they are. The truth is that there is an enormous wealth of detail available, and it is not easy to bring it all out in one performance. I continue to consider this the heart of the Western repertory as a whole.

I will try to keep this page up to date as new releases appear, although updates will tend to be slower here due to the larger number of factors which enter into evaluating a program of this nature.

To recommendation lists.

Todd M. McComb
Updated: 16 July 2013